Long-lived immunity to canine core vaccine antigens in UK dogs as assessed by an in-practice test kit
Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs developed by the World
Guidelines for the vaccination of dogs developed by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA) Vaccination Guidelines Group and the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) define the canine core vaccines as those that protect against infection by the canine distemper virus (CDV), canine adenovirus (CAV) and canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2) ( Welborn et al . 2011 , Day et al . 2016 ; (www.aaha.org/guidelines/canine_vaccination_guidelines.aspx ).
Both sets of guidelines recommend that revaccination of adult dogs with a combination of modified live virus core vaccines from any of the major international manufacturers be done no more frequently than every 3 years; this advice is now entirely consistent with the minimum licensed duration of immunity (DOI) for canine core vaccines marketed in the UK and many other countries.
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